Programming Languages and Compilers are currently very high on the agenda, most recently with Apple’s launch of the Swift Language for iOS on WWDC this week, and also with the increasing popularity of languages like Erlang (e.g. used by Facebook’s WhatsApp), Google’s Go, Clojure, and Mozilla’s Rust. In fact, the Swift language was inspired by several languages: Objective-C, Rust, Haskell, Ruby, Python, C#, CL – according to its main developer – Chris Lattner
There is also significant research on new programming models, e.g. in the Envisage project we’re developing the ABS: A Core Language for Abstract Behavioral Specification (http://abs-models.org).
But all of these language stand on the shoulders of an earlier language – Simula – acknowledged as the first Object-Oriented Programming Language (developed by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard at University of Oslo).